Diabetes mellitus is a chronic, progressive disease which affects a large number of people around the world. It is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycaemia which occurs as a consequence of insulin secretion disorder, disruption in its function, or both. Chronic hyperglycaemia is linked to dysfunction, damage, and decreased function of organs such as the eyes, kidneys, neurons, heart, and blood vessels. Because of this, diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of terminal kidney insufficiency, blindness in adults, foot amputation of non-traumatic nature, etc. The usual clinical shape in both of these conditions is diagnosed by elevated blood sugar for prolonged periods of time. As such, the symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, and elevated hunger.
There are two types of diabetes:
Diabetes mellitus type 1
Earlier described as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes, type 1 diabetes can be seen mostly in children and adolescents. It manifests as destruction of Beta cells in pancreas, and consequently results in the development of insulin deficiency. It usually occurs due to autoimmunity toward B-cells.
Diabetes mellitus type 2
Previously described as insulin-independent type, or adult type, type 2 diabetes includes a combination of significant insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. Most of the people who suffer from diabetes mellitus type 2, also suffer from mild obesity. And, mild obesity can, alone, cause a certain degree of insulin resistance.